Euler Finance

### What Euler is a non-custodial permissionless protocol on Ethereum that allows users to lend and borrow almost any crypto asset. Euler helps users to earn interest on their crypto assets or hedge against volatile markets without the need for a trusted third-party. ### Why? Euler introduces a number of new features in DeFi, including permissionless lending markets, protected collateral, reactive interest rates, per-second compounding interests and feeless flash loans. #### Permisionless listing Euler lets its users determine which assets are listed. Any asset that has a WETH pair on Uniswap v3 can be added as a lending market on Euler. #### Protected Collateral On Compound and Aave, collateral deposited to the protocol is always made available for lending. On the other hand, Euler allows collateral to be deposited, but not made available for lending. This collateral is 'protected'. It doesn't earn interest, but is free from the risks of borrowers defaulting, can always be withdrawn instantly, and helps protect against borrowers using tokens to influence governance decisions. #### Reactive interest rates Euler uses control theory to autonomously change the interest rates towards a level that maximises utilisation of assets in the protocol. These reactive interest rates adapt to market conditions for the asset in real-time without the need for ongoing governance intervention. #### Compound Interest Compound interest is accrued on Euler each second. This is different from other lending protocols, where interest is typically accrued every block. Earning interest per-second is generally expected to perform more predictably in the long-run, even if upgrades to Ethereum lead to changes in the average time between blocks. #### Feeless Flash Loans Euler only charges fees according to the time value of money, and from the blockchain's perspective flash loans are held for a duration of 0 seconds. Thus, they are entirely free on Euler (ignoring gas costs).


Morpho Blue is a decentralized protocol enabling the overcollateralized lending and borrowing of crypto assets (ERC20 Tokens) on the Ethereum Virtual Machine. The protocol is implemented as an immutable smart contract, engineered to serve as a trustless base layer for lenders, borrowers, and applications. Morpho Blue is licensed under a dual license (BUSL-1.1 and GPLv2) which you can find [here]( Once deployed, Morpho Blue will function in perpetuity, provided the existence of the Ethereum blockchain. ### Why Within a year, Morpho has become the third-largest lending platform on Ethereum, with over $1.5B in deposited assets. Morpho's initial version, Morpho Optimizer, operates on top of Compound and Aave to enhance the efficiency of their interest rate model. But consequently, Morpho Optimizer’s growth is constrained by the current underlying lending pool design. In particular, the current lending paradigm is: - Not Trustless: It relies heavily on its DAO and trusted contractors to monitor and update hundreds of risk parameters daily or upgrade large smart contracts. - Not Efficient: It provides inefficient rate spread, low collateralization factors, and charges fees to maintain the platform itself. - Not Flexible: It has a limited number of assets listed. Users have no choice but to subscribe to the one-size-fits-all risk-return profile proposed by the DAO. Although DeFi lending has grown rapidly under existing protocols like Aave and Compound, we need to rethink decentralized lending from the ground up to reach the next order of magnitude. Having spent two years developing the most significant platform built on top of these onchain funds, Morpho is uniquely positioned to recognize and address its limitations. As anticipated in the initial whitepaper, Morpho must metamorphose to become fully autonomous and improve the current state of DeFi lending. We call this evolution Morpho Blue 🟦.


Uniswap is a decentralized exchange protocol (DEX). It allows people to set up or contribute to liquidity pools consisting of various ERC-20 token pairs, or to use the available liquidity to swap their tokens against another using its Automated Market Maker (AMM) mechanism. ### Why AMMS are one of the building blocks in the crypto space as they always provide users with a price between two assets. Uniswap uses a simple X * Y = K, formula to price assets where x is the amount of one token in the liquidity pool, and y is the amount of the other. k is a fixed constant, meaning the pool’s total liquidity is always the same. ### Risk There are various risks involved with using AMMS. These include but are not limited to: Protocol Risk - risk due to mechanics in the design of a protocol. Even when the protocol functions as intended there might be risks e.g. high slippage incurred in trades due to the liquidity curve set-up Smart contract risk - This is risk from an error in the code causing the contract to operate in ways unexpected by the developers. It might leave the code vulnerable to exploits or other attacks Cybersecurity risk - Hackers, Exploiters or other malicious actors trying to attack Uniswap ### Reward Uniswap is arguably one of the largest AMMs in crypto and is usually the protocol where tokens find the most liquidity. Its UI/UX is extremely simple and users can trade most tokens with little problems.